云南省多年生稻工程技术研究中心

发文单位: 澳门新葡亰网站8814 发文时间:2017-06-25

稻作生产过程中,面临两个方面的主要问题。一方面,种植一年生陆稻(旱稻)获得高产的同时带来了水土流失等环境问题(图1);另一方面,随着经济的发展导致农村劳动力缺乏等问题。面对这些问题,我们提出了利用长雄野生稻(Oryza longistaminata)无性繁殖特性培育多年生稻的想法(图2)。

多年生稻,顾名思义,即通过人工培育,在生产条件下能反复利用地下茎正常萌发再生成苗实现多年种植的稻。

地下茎是长雄野生稻(O. longistaminata)实现多年生性的表现形式。期望利用长雄野生稻培育的多年生稻,能够实现稻作种植一次收获多年(多次),无需育秧、犁田耙田、栽秧,只需田间管理的稻作生产方式,达到减少劳动力投入、降低生产成本、减轻水土流失的目的。多年生稻技术,包括品种与栽培技术,是一种轻简化的稻作生产技术。

云南省多年生稻工程技术研究中心

20168月,由云南大学、云南省农业技术推广总站、云南省农业科学院、景洪市农业技术推广中心等单位联合组建的云南省多年生稻工程技术研究中心获得云南科学技术厅认定(图3),成为了省级多年生稻技术的研发条件平台。由云南大学胡凤益研究员担任中心主任,共组建了4个多年稻技术的研发和成果转化平台(育种及遗传改良、栽培生理与栽培技术研发、成果转化与产业化、办公室),机构完善、运行顺畅、具备较强的研发能力和成果转化能力。

目标--多年生稻技术的研发和应用。

任务--包括6个方面的多年生稻技术任务,分别是:长雄野生稻多年生性的基础研究;多年生稻品种的遗传改良研究;多年生稻栽培技术研究;基于多年生稻技术的耕作制度变革;基于多年生稻技术的环境影响;基于多年生稻技术的社会经济学影响。

研究条件--中心已经在云南大学建立了包括200平米实验室,在嵩明建立了1000平米的旱棚(耐旱鉴定设施),在景洪市嘎洒镇建立了20亩的多年生稻田间试验站,在文山、玉溪、普洱、西双版纳、昆明、红河、德宏、临沧、保山9个州(市)的19个县(市、区)建立多年生稻技术试验示范基地。

多年生稻品种遗传改良策略--1997年开始探索,以亚洲栽培稻为母本和起源于非洲的长雄野生稻杂交,获得具有32.5%自交结实率的F1植株,进而明确了长雄野生稻无性繁殖特性的遗传位点,通过长期自交培育了一批携带这些遗传位点的品系,利用分子标记辅助选择(Molecular Marker Assistant Selection, MAS)技术(图4),把长雄野生稻无性繁殖特性的遗传位点转移到水稻主栽品种中,选育多年生水稻品种(图5)。

多年生稻技术的初步应用

截止目前,中心已经选育了9个多年生稻品种(系),部分品种(系)及其配套栽培技术已经在全省文山、玉溪、普洱、西双版纳、昆明、红河、德宏等7个州(市)的16个县(市、区)及老挝等国家进行多年多点试验示范,在南方8个省区(浙江、江西、河南、湖北、湖南、广西、贵州、云南)开展试验,其中PR23品系(多年生稻品种)及配套栽培技术已经在云南部分稻区试种,单季稻实测产量500-600公斤/亩,双季稻实测产量1000-1200公斤/亩,从第2个连续生产季节起,不再需要种子、育秧、移栽、犁田耙田等环节的资金和劳动力投入,和一年生稻相比,可以减少生产投入成本的50%,且连续多年(3-4年)不需要对田块进行翻耕,实行免耕后减少了劳动力、肥料和农药的投入、增加了土壤的自然属性和自然地力,提高土地利用率。

 

There are two serious problems should be solved during the rice production, not only in China, but also in all over the world. Firstly, some environmental problems such as the heavy soil erosion caused by annual rice production (especially for upland rice), although we get high yield (fig 1). Secondly, with the development of economy, the shortage of labor force in rural regions is becoming more and more severe. To solving these issues, the conception of developing perennial rice via transmitting the perenniality of Oryza longistaminata to annual cultivar was conceived (Fig 2).

Perennial Rice, as its name implies, is the rice that could be harvested many years for ideal yield under production condition due to the regeneration of rhizome.

Rhizome of O. longistaminata is the trait of perenniality that was employed to breed cultivar of perennial rice. The purpose and anticipation of perennial rice are to save labors input, decrease chemical fertilizer application, alleviate hard working and reduce soil erosion during rice industry. Perennial Rice technology, including variety and cropping management, is one kind of easy and simply cultivation technique because it is no need seed bought and seeding nursery, no need plough and harrowing, no need transplanting, and crop management needed onlyduring rice production after first rice season.

 

Research Center for Perennial Rice Engineering and Technology in Yunnan

Research Center for Perennial Rice Engineering and Technology in Yunnan approved by Yunnan Provincial Science and Technology Department in 2016 (Fig 3) is becoming an important platform for perennial rice research andapplication. The joint applicants consist of Yunnan University(YNU)Yunnan Center of Agricultural Technology Extension (YCATE), Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences(YAAS) and Jinghong Center of Agricultural Technology Extension (JCATE) are responsible for the center. Meanwhile, Dr. Fengyi Hu who is the dean and professor of School agriculture of YNU, was nominated to the director of this center.

Goals--Perennial Rice Technology Research and its Application

Tasks--There are six tasks as following.(1) Basic research of perenniality of O. longisatminata. (2) Genetics and breeding of perennial rice. (3) Cropping management of perennial rice. (4) Farming system reform based on perennial rice. (5) Environment impact of perennial rice technology application. (6) Social economics impact of perennial rice technology application.

Conditions--That conditions including (1) The laboratory (200m2 size) for research and development of perennial rice in Yunnan University, (2) the facilities (1000m2size) for drought tolerance identification in Songming county where is the research station of YAAS and (3) experimental station for breeding in Jinghong where is the agricultural technology extension center of Jinghong, have been established. Meanwhile, the cultivars regional trial and demonstration of perennial rice also have been set up at 19 sites, such as Wenshan, Yuxi, Puer, Xshuangbana, Kunming, Honghe, Dehong, Lincang, Baoshan and so on.

Strategy of Genetic Improvement for Perennial Rice Cultivars--Since 1997, an interspecific hybrid cross RD23/O. longistaminata, between O. sativa cultivar RD23 (an indica cultivar from Thailand) and an unnamed O. longistaminata accession with long and strong rhizomes, originally collected from Niger and kindly provided by Hiroshi Hyakutake (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama, Japan), was obtained by direct hybridization followed by embryo rescue and had 32.5% pollen fertility, indehiscent anthers, rhizomes that were intermediate in size, and abundance between the parents. The inheritance of Rhizome using QTL analysis based on a F2 population derived from this cross was explained preliminarily. Thus, the Molecular Marker Assistant Selection (MAS) (Fig 5) and backcross methods was employed to breed the cultivar of perennial rice by transmission the perenniality from O. longistaminata to annual cultivar (Fig 5).

Application of Perennial Rice Technology at Present

Up to now, there are 9 cultivars lines of perennial rice were bred and undergoing regional trial on 16 sites in Yunnan, such as Wenshan, Yuxi, Puer, Xishuangbana, Kunming, Honghe, Dehong, and 8 provinces in south of China, like Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan and Lao’s (oversea). One of lines, PR23 (Perennial Rice 23, similar to its female parent RD23 number) has planted and performed with 7.5t-9.0t and 15.0t-18.0t per ha. in single season and double seasons, respectively,  at Mengzhe, south of Yunnan. Perennial rice, succession rice production after first season is obvious for saving ~ 50%input and beneficial to agricultural environment with less  chemical fertilizer use and less soil erosion absolutely than annual rice.